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Успехи молекулярной онкологии

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Глиобластома: молекулярно-генетический портрет и современные терапевтические стратегии лекарственного лечения

https://doi.org/10.17650/2313-805X-2021-8-3-60-76

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Аннотация

Мультиформная глиобластома – наиболее распространенная злокачественная первичная опухоль центральной нервной системы. Несмотря на применение современной комплексной терапии и успехи в изучении молекулярно-генетических изменений данной опухоли, прогноз при этом заболевании является крайне неблагоприятным. В данном обзоре рассмотрены существующие терапевтические агенты и клинические исследования потенциальных препаратов для лечения пациентов с мультиформной глиобластомой. Секвенирование нового поколения прочно вошло в клиническую практику онкологов и позволяет определять мутации генов в клетках опухоли, часть из которых может служить мишенями для терапии. Глиобластома характеризуется большим количеством потенциально таргетируемых молекулярно-генетических нарушений. Как и в случае с другими солидными опухолями, активно изучается таргетная и иммунная терапия глиобластом, в том числе комбинация лекарственных препаратов с физическими методами воздействия. На сегодняшний день новые методы лечения глиобластомы, включая антиангиогенную, иммунную и генную терапию, все еще имеют неопределенные или весьма скромные клинические результаты. Причин этому много: от неспособности большинства молекул преодолеть гематоэнцефалический барьер, заканчивая широкой генетической гетерогенностью данных опухолей. Наиболее перспективным направлением является иммунотерапия. Однако на данном этапе нельзя утверждать, что существует эффективная монотерапия глиобластомы. Комбинация иммунотерапии с лучевой и химиотерапией повышает мутационную нагрузку, экспрессию стрессовых и других факторов, поэтому исследователи возлагают большие надежды именно на комбинированные методы лечения. 

Об авторах

Г. П. Генс
Кафедра онкологии и лучевой терапии ФГБОУ ВО «Московский государственный медико-стоматологический университет им. А.И. Евдокимова» Минздрава России
Россия

127473 Москва, ул. Делегатская, 20



В. Д. Саникович
Кафедра онкологии и лучевой терапии ФГБОУ ВО «Московский государственный медико-стоматологический университет им. А.И. Евдокимова» Минздрава России
Россия

127473 Москва, ул. Делегатская, 20



В. А. Милейко
ООО «Онкодиагностика Атлас»
Россия

121069 Москва, ул. Малая Никитская, 31



А. А. Лебедева
ООО «Онкодиагностика Атлас»
Россия

121069 Москва, ул. Малая Никитская, 31



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Для цитирования:


Генс Г.П., Саникович В.Д., Милейко В.А., Лебедева А.А. Глиобластома: молекулярно-генетический портрет и современные терапевтические стратегии лекарственного лечения. Успехи молекулярной онкологии. 2021;8(3):60-76. https://doi.org/10.17650/2313-805X-2021-8-3-60-76

For citation:


Guens G.P., Sanikovich V.D., Mileyko V.A., Lebedeva A.A. Glioblastoma: a molecular genetic portrait and modern therapeutic strategies for drug treatment. Advances in Molecular Oncology. 2021;8(3):60-76. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.17650/2313-805X-2021-8-3-60-76

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